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Bach, The Universe & Everything: Summer 2020Bach, The Universe & Everything: Summer If you are an annual pass holder, please follow the links to Rent Series or Individual Videos. The prices will. Modern Age (Now),Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Universe #9 Sub Cover Variant IDW Comics CBCollectibles, Comics. Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT, Institut für Kernphysik (IK). Publikationstyp, Vortrag. Publikationsjahr, Sprache, Englisch. Identifikator, KITopen-ID.
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Researchers used telescope data to corroborate information about cosmic background radiation. How Your Universe Works. Related Story. This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses.
You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano. By studying the expansion of the Universe, astronomers have also realized most of the matter in the Universe may be in a form which cannot be observed by any scientific equipment we have.
This matter has been named dark matter. Just to be clear, dark matter and energy have not been observed directly that is why they are called 'dark'.
However, many astronomers think they must exist, because many astronomical observations would be hard to explain if they didn't.
Some parts of the universe are expanding even faster than the speed of light. This means the light will never be able to reach us here on Earth, so we will never be able to see these parts of the universe.
We call the part of the universe we can see the observable universe. The word Universe comes from the Old French word Univers , which comes from the Latin word universum.
A different interpretation way to interpret of unvorsum is "everything rotated as one" or "everything rotated by one".
This refers to an early Greek model of the Universe. In that model, all matter was in rotating spheres centered on the Earth; according to Aristotle , the rotation of the outermost sphere was responsible for the motion and change of everything within.
It was natural for the Greeks to assume that the Earth was stationary and that the heavens rotated about the Earth , because careful astronomical and physical measurements such as the Foucault pendulum are required to prove otherwise.
The broadest word meaning of the Universe is found in De divisione naturae by the medieval philosopher Johannes Scotus Eriugena , who defined it as simply everything: everything that exists and everything that does not exist.
Time is not considered in Eriugena's definition; thus, his definition includes everything that exists, has existed and will exist, as well as everything that does not exist, has never existed and will never exist.
This all-embracing definition was not adopted by most later philosophers, but something similar is in quantum physics.
Usually the Universe is thought to be everything that exists, has existed, and will exist. The two kinds of elements behave according to physical laws , in which we describe how the elements interact.
A similar definition of the term universe is everything that exists at a single moment of time, such as the present or the beginning of time, as in the sentence "The Universe was of size 0".
Physical laws were the rules governing the properties of matter, form and their changes. Later philosophers such as Lucretius , Averroes , Avicenna and Baruch Spinoza altered or refined these divisions.
For example, Averroes and Spinoza have active principles governing the Universe which act on passive elements.
It is possible to form space-times , each existing but not able to touch, move, or change interact with each other.
An easy way to think of this is a group of separate soap bubbles , in which people living on one soap bubble cannot interact with those on other soap bubbles.
According to one common terminology, each "soap bubble" of space-time is denoted as a universe, whereas our particular space-time is denoted as the Universe , just as we call our moon the Moon.
The entire collection of these separate space-times is denoted as the multiverse. According to a still-more-restrictive definition, the Universe is everything within our connected space-time that could have a chance to interact with us and vice versa.
According to the general idea of relativity , some regions of space may never interact with ours even in the lifetime of the Universe, due to the finite speed of light and the ongoing expansion of space.
For example, radio messages sent from Earth may never reach some regions of space, even if the Universe would exist forever; space may expand faster than light can traverse it.
It is worth emphasizing that those distant regions of space are taken to exist and be part of reality as much as we are; yet we can never interact with them, even in principle.
Strictly speaking, the observable Universe depends on the location of the observer. By travelling, an observer can come into contact with a greater region of space-time than an observer who remains still, so that the observable Universe for the former is larger than for the latter.
Nevertheless, even the most rapid traveler may not be able to interact with all of space. Typically, the 'observable Universe' means the Universe seen from our vantage point in the Milky Way Galaxy.
The Universe is huge and possibly infinite in volume. The universe we live in is not flat and unchanging, but constantly expanding.
If the expansion rate is known, scientists can work backwards to determine the universe's age, much like police officers can unravel the initial conditions that resulted in a traffic accident.
Thus, finding the expansion rate of the universe — a number known as the Hubble constant — is key. A number of factors determine the value of this constant.
The first is the type of matter that dominates the universe. Scientists must determine the proportion of regular and dark matter to dark energy.
Density also plays a role. Ordinary matter and the forces that act on matter can be described in terms of elementary particles. A true force-particle "theory of everything" has not been attained.
A hadron is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force. Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons such as protons and neutrons made of three quarks, and mesons such as pions made of one quark and one antiquark.
Of the hadrons, protons are stable, and neutrons bound within atomic nuclei are stable. Other hadrons are unstable under ordinary conditions and are thus insignificant constituents of the modern universe.
Most of the hadrons and anti-hadrons were then eliminated in particle-antiparticle annihilation reactions, leaving a small residual of hadrons by the time the universe was about one second old.
A lepton is an elementary , half-integer spin particle that does not undergo strong interactions but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle ; no two leptons of the same species can be in exactly the same state at the same time.
Electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus are unstable particle that quickly decay after being produced in high energy collisions, such as those involving cosmic rays or carried out in particle accelerators.
The electron governs nearly all of chemistry , as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed.
Neutrinos stream throughout the universe but rarely interact with normal matter. The lepton epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which the leptons dominated the mass of the universe.
It started roughly 1 second after the Big Bang , after the majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilated each other at the end of the hadron epoch.
The mass of the universe was then dominated by photons as it entered the following photon epoch. A photon is the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
It is the force carrier for the electromagnetic force , even when static via virtual photons. The effects of this force are easily observable at the microscopic and at the macroscopic level because the photon has zero rest mass ; this allows long distance interactions.
Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave—particle duality , exhibiting properties of waves and of particles.
The photon epoch started after most leptons and anti-leptons were annihilated at the end of the lepton epoch, about 10 seconds after the Big Bang.
Atomic nuclei were created in the process of nucleosynthesis which occurred during the first few minutes of the photon epoch.
For the remainder of the photon epoch the universe contained a hot dense plasma of nuclei, electrons and photons. About , years after the Big Bang, the temperature of the Universe fell to the point where nuclei could combine with electrons to create neutral atoms.
As a result, photons no longer interacted frequently with matter and the universe became transparent. The highly redshifted photons from this period form the cosmic microwave background.
Tiny variations in temperature and density detectable in the CMB were the early "seeds" from which all subsequent structure formation took place.
General relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
It is the basis of current cosmological models of the universe. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation , providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time , or spacetime.
In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present.
The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations , a system of partial differential equations. In general relativity, the distribution of matter and energy determines the geometry of spacetime, which in turn describes the acceleration of matter.
Therefore, solutions of the Einstein field equations describe the evolution of the universe. Combined with measurements of the amount, type, and distribution of matter in the universe, the equations of general relativity describe the evolution of the universe over time.
This metric has only two undetermined parameters. An overall dimensionless length scale factor R describes the size scale of the universe as a function of time; an increase in R is the expansion of the universe.
When R changes, all the spatial distances in the universe change in tandem; there is an overall expansion or contraction of space itself. This accounts for the observation that galaxies appear to be flying apart; the space between them is stretching.
The stretching of space also accounts for the apparent paradox that two galaxies can be 40 billion light-years apart, although they started from the same point Second, all solutions suggest that there was a gravitational singularity in the past, when R went to zero and matter and energy were infinitely dense.
It may seem that this conclusion is uncertain because it is based on the questionable assumptions of perfect homogeneity and isotropy the cosmological principle and that only the gravitational interaction is significant.
However, the Penrose—Hawking singularity theorems show that a singularity should exist for very general conditions.
Hence, according to Einstein's field equations, R grew rapidly from an unimaginably hot, dense state that existed immediately following this singularity when R had a small, finite value ; this is the essence of the Big Bang model of the universe.
Understanding the singularity of the Big Bang likely requires a quantum theory of gravity , which has not yet been formulated. Third, the curvature index k determines the sign of the mean spatial curvature of spacetime  averaged over sufficiently large length scales greater than about a billion light-years.
Conversely, if k is zero or negative, the universe has an infinite volume. By analogy, an infinite plane has zero curvature but infinite area, whereas an infinite cylinder is finite in one direction and a torus is finite in both.
A toroidal universe could behave like a normal universe with periodic boundary conditions. Some speculative theories have proposed that our universe is but one of a set of disconnected universes, collectively denoted as the multiverse , challenging or enhancing more limited definitions of the universe.
Max Tegmark developed a four-part classification scheme for the different types of multiverses that scientists have suggested in response to various Physics problems.
An example of such multiverses is the one resulting from the chaotic inflation model of the early universe. In this interpretation, parallel worlds are generated in a manner similar to quantum superposition and decoherence , with all states of the wave functions being realized in separate worlds.
Effectively, in the many-worlds interpretation the multiverse evolves as a universal wavefunction. If the Big Bang that created our multiverse created an ensemble of multiverses, the wave function of the ensemble would be entangled in this sense.
The least controversial, but still highly disputed, category of multiverse in Tegmark's scheme is Level I.
The multiverses of this level are composed by distant spacetime events "in our own universe". Tegmark and others  have argued that, if space is infinite, or sufficiently large and uniform, identical instances of the history of Earth's entire Hubble volume occur every so often, simply by chance.
Tegmark calculated that our nearest so-called doppelgänger , is 10 10 metres away from us a double exponential function larger than a googolplex.
It is possible to conceive of disconnected spacetimes, each existing but unable to interact with one another. The entire collection of these separate spacetimes is denoted as the multiverse.
Historically, there have been many ideas of the cosmos cosmologies and its origin cosmogonies. Theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by the Greeks and Indians.
The modern era of cosmology began with Albert Einstein 's general theory of relativity , which made it possible to quantitatively predict the origin, evolution, and conclusion of the universe as a whole.
Most modern, accepted theories of cosmology are based on general relativity and, more specifically, the predicted Big Bang.
Many cultures have stories describing the origin of the world and universe. Cultures generally regard these stories as having some truth.
There are however many differing beliefs in how these stories apply amongst those believing in a supernatural origin, ranging from a god directly creating the universe as it is now to a god just setting the "wheels in motion" for example via mechanisms such as the big bang and evolution.
Ethnologists and anthropologists who study myths have developed various classification schemes for the various themes that appear in creation stories.
In related stories, the universe is created by a single entity emanating or producing something by him- or herself, as in the Tibetan Buddhism concept of Adi-Buddha , the ancient Greek story of Gaia Mother Earth , the Aztec goddess Coatlicue myth, the ancient Egyptian god Atum story, and the Judeo-Christian Genesis creation narrative in which the Abrahamic God created the universe.
In another type of story, the universe is created from the union of male and female deities, as in the Maori story of Rangi and Papa.
In other stories, the universe is created by crafting it from pre-existing materials, such as the corpse of a dead god—as from Tiamat in the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish or from the giant Ymir in Norse mythology —or from chaotic materials, as in Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology.
In other stories, the universe emanates from fundamental principles, such as Brahman and Prakrti , the creation myth of the Serers ,  or the yin and yang of the Tao.
The pre-Socratic Greek philosophers and Indian philosophers developed some of the earliest philosophical concepts of the universe.
In particular, they noted the ability of matter to change forms e. The first to do so was Thales , who proposed this material to be water.
Thales' student, Anaximander , proposed that everything came from the limitless apeiron. Anaximenes proposed the primordial material to be air on account of its perceived attractive and repulsive qualities that cause the arche to condense or dissociate into different forms.
Anaxagoras proposed the principle of Nous Mind , while Heraclitus proposed fire and spoke of logos.
Empedocles proposed the elements to be earth, water, air and fire. His four-element model became very popular. Like Pythagoras , Plato believed that all things were composed of number , with Empedocles' elements taking the form of the Platonic solids.
Democritus , and later philosophers—most notably Leucippus —proposed that the universe is composed of indivisible atoms moving through a void vacuum , although Aristotle did not believe that to be feasible because air, like water, offers resistance to motion.
Air will immediately rush in to fill a void, and moreover, without resistance, it would do so indefinitely fast. Although Heraclitus argued for eternal change, his contemporary Parmenides made the radical suggestion that all change is an illusion, that the true underlying reality is eternally unchanging and of a single nature.
Parmenides' idea seemed implausible to many Greeks, but his student Zeno of Elea challenged them with several famous paradoxes. Aristotle responded to these paradoxes by developing the notion of a potential countable infinity, as well as the infinitely divisible continuum.
Unlike the eternal and unchanging cycles of time, he believed that the world is bounded by the celestial spheres and that cumulative stellar magnitude is only finitely multiplicative.
The Indian philosopher Kanada , founder of the Vaisheshika school, developed a notion of atomism and proposed that light and heat were varieties of the same substance.
They denied the existence of substantial matter and proposed that movement consisted of momentary flashes of a stream of energy.
The notion of temporal finitism was inspired by the doctrine of creation shared by the three Abrahamic religions : Judaism , Christianity and Islam.
The Christian philosopher , John Philoponus , presented the philosophical arguments against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past and future.
Philoponus' arguments against an infinite past were used by the early Muslim philosopher , Al-Kindi Alkindus ; the Jewish philosopher , Saadia Gaon Saadia ben Joseph ; and the Muslim theologian , Al-Ghazali Algazel.
Astronomical models of the universe were proposed soon after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers , who viewed the universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus.
Later Greek philosophers, observing the motions of the heavenly bodies, were concerned with developing models of the universe-based more profoundly on empirical evidence.
The first coherent model was proposed by Eudoxus of Cnidos. According to Aristotle's physical interpretation of the model, celestial spheres eternally rotate with uniform motion around a stationary Earth.
Normal matter is entirely contained within the terrestrial sphere. De Mundo composed before BC or between and BC , stated, "Five elements, situated in spheres in five regions, the less being in each case surrounded by the greater—namely, earth surrounded by water, water by air, air by fire, and fire by ether—make up the whole universe".
This model was also refined by Callippus and after concentric spheres were abandoned, it was brought into nearly perfect agreement with astronomical observations by Ptolemy.
The success of such a model is largely due to the mathematical fact that any function such as the position of a planet can be decomposed into a set of circular functions the Fourier modes.
Other Greek scientists, such as the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus , postulated according to Stobaeus account that at the center of the universe was a "central fire" around which the Earth , Sun , Moon and planets revolved in uniform circular motion.
The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric model of the universe. This number represents an accurate "direct" measurement of the age of the universe other methods typically involve Hubble's law and the age of the oldest stars in globular clusters, etc.
It is possible to use different methods for determining the same parameter in this case — the age of the universe and arrive at different answers with no overlap in the "errors".
To best avoid the problem, it is common to show two sets of uncertainties; one related to the actual measurement and the other related to the systematic errors of the model being used.
An important component to the analysis of data used to determine the age of the universe e. In the 18th century, the concept that the age of the Earth was millions, if not billions, of years began to appear.
However, most scientists throughout the 19th century and into the first decades of the 20th century presumed that the universe itself was Steady State and eternal, possibly with stars coming and going but no changes occurring at the largest scale known at the time.
The first scientific theories indicating that the age of the universe might be finite were the studies of thermodynamics , formalized in the midth century.
The concept of entropy dictates that if the universe or any other closed system were infinitely old, then everything inside would be at the same temperature, and thus there would be no stars and no life.
No scientific explanation for this contradiction was put forth at the time. In Albert Einstein published the theory of general relativity  and in constructed the first cosmological model based on his theory.
In order to remain consistent with a steady state universe, Einstein added what was later called a cosmological constant to his equations. Einstein's model of a static universe was proved unstable by Arthur Eddington.
The first direct observational hint that the universe was not static but expanding came from the observations of ' recession velocities ', mostly by Vesto Slipher , combined with distances to the ' nebulae ' galaxies by Edwin Hubble in a work published in In addition, these galaxies were very large and very far away.
Spectra taken of these distant galaxies showed a red shift in their spectral lines presumably caused by the Doppler effect , thus indicating that these galaxies were moving away from the Earth.
In addition, the farther away these galaxies seemed to be the dimmer they appeared to us the greater was their redshift, and thus the faster they seemed to be moving away.
This was the first direct evidence that the universe is not static but expanding. The first estimate of the age of the universe came from the calculation of when all of the objects must have started speeding out from the same point.
Hubble's initial value for the universe's age was very low, as the galaxies were assumed to be much closer than later observations found them to be.
The first reasonably accurate measurement of the rate of expansion of the universe, a numerical value now known as the Hubble constant , was made in by astronomer Allan Sandage.
However Sandage, like Einstein, did not believe his own results at the time of discovery. His value for the age of the universe [ further explanation needed ] was too short to reconcile with the billion-year age estimated at that time for the oldest known stars.
Sandage and other astronomers repeated these measurements numerous times, attempting to reduce the Hubble constant and thus increase the resulting age for the universe.
Sandage even proposed new theories of cosmogony to explain this discrepancy. This issue was more or less resolved by improvements in the theoretical models used for estimating the ages of stars.
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